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Demanding on Many Dimensions: Validating the Interactivity-As-Demand Measurement Model for VR-Based Video Games

Keywords: virtual reality, interactivity, scale development, user experience, perceived demands

Published onNov 03, 2021
Demanding on Many Dimensions: Validating the Interactivity-As-Demand Measurement Model for VR-Based Video Games
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Abstract

Video games represent exemplar interactive experiences, and this direct user control over the form and content of on- screen information is one of many reasons that games are such enjoyable and meaningful experiences for players. However, interactivity also requires players to serve as co-authors of the experience, which brings with it certain demands on player’s limited attentional resources. Previous research has found evidence for at least four such demands: cognitive, emotional, physical (subdivided into controller intuitiveness and physical exertional) and social demands. Taken together, this five-factor structure is presented as the interactivity-as-demand model and has been used in a variety of cross-cultural contexts (among English-, German-, and Mandarin Chinese-speaking populations). These five dimensions explain unique variance in focal interactive user experiences but have yet to be applied to VR-based applications such as VR-based video games. Results on N = 144 VR video gamers confirmed the a priori factor structure of the Video Game Demand Scale (VDGS) held when applied to VR-based video games. More importantly, discrete VGDS dimensions predicted relevant VR outcomes: spatial presence was higher when VR controls were more intuitive (less demanding) and social presence was higher when experiences were more emotionally socially demanding. Likely due to the centrality of natural user interfaces and broader body movement in VR games, perceptions of physical demand (both controller demand and physical exertion) played a more central role on several entertainment outcomes. Non-gaming and social VR use was rare, hindering broader comparisons.



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